March 31, 2012

Three quarters of Kerey clan men belong to Genghis Khan Y chromosome cluster

From the paper:
According to the historical data, the split between two sub-clans of the Kereys occurred about 20-22 generations ago (Khalidullin 2005). Estimation of divergence time (TD) of two groups of 15 STR haplotypes (except for DYS385a,b loci) found in the Kereys sub-clans demonstrates that TD value equal to 630 ± 190 years (or approximately 21 ± 6 generations) is resulted when a mean of per-locus, per-generation mutation rate of 0.0033 and a 30-year generation time are used. Note that similar value of mutation rate (0.00324) has been calculated as optimal for 15 STR haplotypes by Busby et al. (2011) who have investigated the question on how average squared distance (ASD) estimates change within haplotype sets when using different combinations of Y-chromosome STRs. This mutation rate belongs to a class of so called genealogical STR mutation rates revealed by direct observation in father/son pairs (Kayser et al. 2000; Goedbloed et al. 2009).
The correspondence between the split time of the Kerey sub-clans and the age estimate of their Y-STR divergence is quite interesting and provides an independent historical argument for the correspondence between the C3* star cluster and Genghis Khan (or at least his direct patrilineal kin). Note that the star cluster's age matches G. K. only using a genealogical mutation rate, and not the widely (mis)used "effective mutation rate. The timeframe is recent enough to render any saturation effects from non-linearity (as described by Busby et al.) relatively unimportant.


The data reported above, taken together with the known arguments in favor of the
possible Genghis Khan‟s descent of Y-chromosome C3* star-cluster (Zerjal et al. 2003), allow us to suggest two hypotheses.
(1) The star-cluster is not directly related to the descendants of Genghis Khan, but rather is associated with the Kerait clan members. Mongol conquest with participation of the Keraits as special Khan‟s military forces allowed them to disseminate the Kerait-specific Y-chromosomes in the vast area inhabited by various peoples.
(2) Genghis Khan by himself belonged to the Keraits. This is supported by the following historical evidence (Man 2004; Khalidullin 2005). The Keraits inhabited the banks of the Onon River, where the camp of Genghis Khan‟s father Yesukhei was located. Yesukhei was declared as a blood brother of the Keraits‟ Khan Toghrul (Wang Khan). Toghrul then declared Genghis Khan his son-in-law. Fraternization of the Genghis Khan family with the Keraits‟ Khan suggests  that a real blood relationship, though probably not approved officially, existed between them.

Human Biology: Vol. 84: Iss. 1, Article 4.

The Y-chromosome C3* star-cluster attributed to Genghis Khan's descendants is present at high frequency in the Kerey clan from Kazakhstan

Serikbai Abilev et al.

In order to verify the possibility that the Y-chromosome C3* star-cluster attributed to Genghis Khan and his patrilineal descendants is relatively frequent in the Kereys, who are the dominant clan in Kazakhstan and in Central Asia as a whole, polymorphism of the Y-chromosome was studied in Kazakhs, represented mostly by members of the Kerey clan. The Kereys showed the highest frequency (76.5%) of individuals carrying the Y-chromosome variant known as C3* star-cluster ascribed to the descendants of Genghis Khan. C3* star-cluster haplotypes were found in two sub-clans, Abakh-Kereys and Ashmaily-Kereys, diverged about 20-22 generations ago according to the historical data. Median network of the Kerey star-cluster haplotypes at 17 STR loci displays a bipartite structure, with two subclusters defined by the only difference at DYS448 locus. It is noteworthy that there is a strong correspondence of these subclusters with the Kerey sub-clans affiliation. The data obtained suggest that the Kerey clan appears to be the largest known clan in the world descending from a common Y-chromosome ancestor. Possible ways of Genghis Khan‟s relation to the Kereys are discussed.



sidoroffs said...

What does Genghis Khan have to do with C3* in the first place?

sidoroffs said...

In what way are Kereys dominant in Kazakhstan?

Ted Kandell said...

A complete joke.

The Giray Khans of Crimea claimed descent from the Khans of the Golden Horde, the Blue Horde, and Jochi, who was NOT the biological son of Genghis Khan, but who had 12 sons, one of whom had 14 sons.

Jochi was almost certainly the son of Chilger Boke, the brother of the chieftain of the Merkit tribe who kidnapped Temujin's (later named Genghis Khan) wife.

There are people named Giray who have direct pedigrees going back to Jochi.


These people can be found on Facebook.

Any so-called "Genetic Genealogists" here who would like to pay to test one?

I PERSONALLY paid to test one for DYF399S1:

Also, we have some evidence that Ukrainian Jochids from the Kondrat Banner (some are Polish Catholics) descended from Jochi are in this so-called "Genghis cluster".

So this is what passes for "genetics" and "genetic genealogy"?
Can anyone say "CMH"?

Volunteers to PAY to test them, listed below:

Ted Kandell said...

There is some question as to Jochi's true paternity. Shortly after her marriage to Genghis Khan (known as Temüjin at the time), Börte was abducted by members of the Mergid confederation. She was given to a certain Chilger Bökh, who was the brother of the Yehe Chiledu, as a spoil of war. She remained in Chilger Bökh's captivity for a few months before she was recovered by Temüjin. Shortly afterwards she gave birth to Jochi. By all accounts, Genghis Khan treated Jochi as his first son, but a doubt always remained among the Mongols whether Temüjin or Chilger Bökh was the real father of Jochi. This uncertainty about his paternity was not without consequences. Jochi’s descendants, although they formed the oldest branch of Genghis Khan’s family, were never considered for the succession in claiming their father’s heritage and there were signs of estrangement between Jochi and Genghis Khan.

"But the 'enemy' tribes - Tatars, Merkits, Keraits, Namans and so forth - where broken up, and such of their men as had not been killed during the process of tribal unification were disributed among other units."

List of Jochi's sons

Ted Kandell said...

How about a WOTY for kit N23982 which is part of this cluster, and has a surname indicating Jochid descent?


= "We don't give a damn, because they're not Europeans."


Oh, maybe someone wants to check the 1000 Genomes results for a C3* who might be a member of this clade, to find some new Y full sequence SNPs?

1000 Genomes Y Project chrY Data Analysis

Oh, and about "your" M222, another "Genetic Genealogy" claim:

No, the "Royal O'Neills", the Earls of Tyrone, ARE NOT M222.
Sorry, you're from Niall's Hostages.
So the Prophet Joseph Smith was descended from a pagan Irish slave. Interesting.

"Genetic Genealogy" is an endless source of humor.

"G2c-M377 in Merida Yucatan comes from the Ancient Israelites."
Didn't say "Nephites", did I? No, I did not.
That should make someone cough up the big $ for testing, hopefully!

Dienekes said...

No more multiple posting, please.

Unknown said...

"Oh, and about "your" M222, another "Genetic Genealogy" claim:

No, the "Royal O'Neills", the Earls of Tyrone, ARE NOT M222.
Sorry, you're from Niall's Hostages.
So the Prophet Joseph Smith was descended from a pagan Irish slave. Interesting.

"Genetic Genealogy" is an endless source of humor."

So is appalling ignorance. O'Neill's are from Niall Glundubh a king long after Niall of the Nine Hostages. Most relevant families including ones of Ui Neill leaders before O'Neills came to power are strong in M222. BTW M222 is second largest group of Ulster O'Neills. NPE maybe?