December 02, 2004

Dissection of Y-chromosome haplogroups N and Q

Y-chromosome haplogroups N and Q are both very frequent in northern Eurasia. To get a better understanding of the correlation between these haplogroups and physical types, I have gathered frequency data from Am. J. Hum. Genet. 74:661–682, 2004 and anthropological descriptions from The Red Book of the Peoples of the Russian Empire. I list all Siberian populations which have frequency greater than 50% for one of these haplogroups.

Khants (N=76.6%):
Anthropologically, the Khants are representatives of the Uralic race. Over half of their racial characteristics are predominantly Mongoloid (particularly in the Beryozovo region). They are short (the average height for men is 158 cm and for women 146 cm), and their broad-shouldered stocky trunk has a characteristic convexity. They have narrow eyes and high cheek-bones and their eyes and hair are dark.

Nganasans (N=92.1%):
Anthropologically, the Nganasans are representatives of the Uralic race in which Mongoloid and Arctic traits dominate European. Due to their relative isolation they have scarcely mixed with other peoples, (this situation has changed in more recent times with incursions by the Dolgans and Russians). Nganasans are a short (men up to 160 cm), stocky people. They have a broad face with high cheekbones, a flat nose and the epicanthic fold. Hair and eyes are dark but the skin is relatively fair.

Nenets (N=97.3%):
Anthropologically, the Nenets are representatives of the Uralic race with stronger than average Mongoloid characteristics. They are commonly of short stature (the average male height is 158 cm) and a stocky build. The face is broad and flat, with a short and somewhat protruding nose. While hair is straight and thick, beard growth is poor. Eyelids commonly exhibit epicanthic folds. Due to dark pigmentation, hair and eyes are black or brown and the skin is swarthy. In appearance the Nenets resemble most the Ostyaks, displaying, however, more Mongoloid characteristics. The Nenets of the Arkhangelsk region exhibit a somewhat stronger European strain.

Selkups (Q=66.4%):
Anthropologically, the Selkups are representatives of the Uralic race, being rather similar to the Ob-Ugrians. They are of small stature (men below 160 cm) and have a short skull. The hair and eyes are dark. Mongoloid traits are less conspicuous than in the Northern Samoyeds, the colour of the skin is fairer. The Selkups are unique among the Samoyeds as they are bearded.

Kets (Q=93.7%):
Anthropologically the Ket belong to the Mongoloid North-Asian race, although some features of the Uralic race are also observable. Compared to Mongoloid people, the colour of their skin and eyes is lighter, but in comparison with the Uralic people their skin is darker, their nose is more protrusive and their beard growth poorer. Their face is broad and flat, with high cheekbones. They are short and stout. In 1843 A. Th. von Middendorff gave the following description: "the Kets are plump with thin legs and a staggering walk, flitting eyes and a jerky talk. In spite of their Mongoloid features they look quite alike the Finns".

Yakuts (N=88.4%):

Some observations: it seems that haplogroup N implies presence of the Uralic race, as I have noted elsewhere. Haplogroup Q, which is also strongly represented in the American Mongoloids, is present in two of the Siberian groups, one of them identified as Mongoloid (Kets) in the Red Book, while the other (Selkups) identified as Uralic.

The Uralic race has been thought to be either the result of admixture of Caucasoids with Mongoloids, or a race of its own which has also undergone admixture with the two major Eurasian races. The discovery of haplogroup N and the study of its distribution strongly suggests that the Uralic race has an independent origin, even though it seems to be related to the Mongoloid race.

In the case of haplogroup Q, its Mongoloid association seems unassailable, especially since it is found in the Americas. Therefore, the identification of the Selkups as "Uralic" requires an explanation. The Selkups have a frequency of Caucasoid haplogroups (R1b+R1a=25.2%) plus 6.9% of haplogroup N. Therefore in their case, their "Uralic"-type of appearance is probably the result of admixture between Caucasoids, a hint of "real" Uralics, and Q-haplogroup Mongoloids.

In conclusion, the genetic data seems to support the multidimensional craniometric view of Uralics as a race of their own which also shows signs of hybridization with Caucasoids and Mongoloids on a West-East axis.

1 comment:

Bismarck said...

I offer that modern "Mongoloid" Amerindian traits are characteristic of the Na-Dene speaking, "C3-clan". These men migrated through the Canadian Ice Free Corridor, about 10 Kya, at the end of the last Ice Age. They appeared abruptly on the Great Plains, past the southern mouth of the Ice Free Corridor, and replaced much of the older "Paleoindian" Amerinds, like Kennewick Man & Spirit Cave Man, who do NOT show "Mongoloid" traits. Neither are Mesoamericans (Aztecs, Maya, Inca), who are exclusively "Q(3)-clan", associated w/ "Mongoloid" characteristics.

Therefore, I offer that:

Paleoindian = Q/Q3 = Amerind
Mongoloid = C3 = Na-Dene

Please see: