May 08, 2009

Phylogeography of macrohaplogroup M in India

A nice little open access review paper from the Indian Journal of Genetics.

Journal of Genetics Volume 88, Number 1, April 2009

Phylogeographic distribution of mitochondrial DNA macrohaplogroup M in India

Suvendu Maji, S. Krithika and T. S. Vasulu


Indian subcontinent harbours both the human mtDNA macrohaplogroups M and N, of which M is the most prevalent. In this study, we discuss the overall distribution of the various haplogroups and sub-haplogroups of M among the different castes and tribes to understand their diverse pattern with respect to geographical location and linguistic affiliation of the populations. An overview of about 170 studied populations, belonging to four distinct linguistic families and inhabiting different geographic zones, revealed wide diversity of about 22 major haplogroups of M. The tribal populations belonging to the same linguistic family but inhabiting different geographical regions (Dravidian and Austro–Asiatic speakers) exhibited differences in their haplogroup diversity. The northern and southern region castes showed greater diversity than the castes of other regions.

Link (pdf)


Maju said...

Thanks for posting this. Most interesting even in just a fast preview, because it locates some of the rare clades that are hard to find where they are found and because it does so even to regional/population level.

It is notable that there is still some 25% of Indian M that is still unclassified (M*). This makes my comparison with H (notwithstanding the different ages, position within the tree, geography and raw numbers) be even more complete: not just do these two haplogroups have the largest number by far of top-tier subhaplogroups stemming directly from the main node (starlike structure) among all known haplogroups but both also seem to retain a huge number of "private" unclassifiable lineages (M* and H* respectively).

UncleTomRuckusInGoodWhiteWorld said...

Are there different types of M*. My wife's MTDNA test showed her as having M*. This test was from the National Geographic Genographic project. She is Japanese.

Unknown said...

To supplement the publication on mtDNA M distribution, I would like to add here that mtDNA diversity of N and U distributions in Indian populations publilshed early will give a better picture of whole mtDNA diversity of populations from India.
An overview of "Mitochondrial DNA distribution of acrohaplogroup N and its haplogroup U and subhaplogroup R in Indian populations" based on the pulications till 2007 were already published by the same authors in Trends in Molecular Anthropology. Special volume of International Journal of Human Genetics.2008.(google search: krepublications). This is freely available and open access journal)

Maju said...

Are there different types of M*. My wife's MTDNA test showed her as having M*. This test was from the National Geographic Genographic project. She is Japanese.

Depends on what markers were tested. M is a vast super-haplogroup. I imagine they have tested her for the most common Japanese markers such as M8, M7, C, D, Z, G, etc. But whatever is left would be classified as M*.

M* is not a haplogroup properly speaking (M is, a huge one) but a paraphyletic group that includes all descendants of M that do not belong to whichever other subclades have been tested. Same for whatever-asterisk in different contexts.

Japan has anyhow (from memory) a wide array of M lineages so it's likely that she belongs to some of the ones not tested by that company.