Elsewhere (Batini C, Hallast P, Zadik D, Maisano Delser P, Benazzo A, Ghirotto S, Arroyo-Pardo E, Cavalleri GL, de Knijff P, Dupuy BM, Eriksen H, King TE, López de Munain A, López-Parra AM, Milasin J, Novelletto A, Pamjav H, Sajantila A, Tolun A, Winney B and Jobling MA, submitted.) we have described an NGS-based MSY phylogeny based on 5,996 SNPs ascertained in 334 human Y chromosomes comprising 17 population samples from Europe and the Near East, focused on illuminating the origins and histories of European patrilineages.Anyway, the current paper is openly available, so do read it if you haven't already. Of interest to long-time readers of this blog is this bit:
Generally, the STRs perform poorly, giving a wide variety of TMRCAs for nodes with similar SNP-based dates, and correlation coefficients consistently below 0.6. Considering the variables described above: 1) ASD generally outperforms rho, and choice of rooting method (ancestral or modal) makes little difference. For rho, rooting through the ancestral haplotype performs much worse than through the modal haplotype; 2) removal of RM-YSTRs, and STRs showing repeat array complexity, does not have a major influence on relationships between SNP- and STR-based estimates of TMRCA, and the effects depend upon how the root is specified; and 3) the evolutionary STR mutation rate consistently overestimates, and the pedigree rate underestimates, the TMRCAs of nodes (fig. 4a). As expected, the pedigree mutation rate performs better for young nodes (less than 10 ka; supplementary table S6, Supplementary Material online), whereas the evolutionary rate performs better for older nodes.Mol Biol Evol (2014) doi: 10.1093/molbev/msu327
The Y-Chromosome Tree Bursts into Leaf: 13,000 High-Confidence SNPs Covering the Majority of Known Clades
Pille Hallast, Chiara Batini, Daniel Zadik et al.
Many studies of human populations have used the male-specific region of the Y chromosome (MSY) as a marker, but MSY sequence variants have traditionally been subject to ascertainment bias. Also, dating of haplogroups has relied on Y-specific short tandem repeats (STRs), involving problems of mutation rate choice, and possible long-term mutation saturation. Next-generation sequencing can ascertain single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in an unbiased way, leading to phylogenies in which branch-lengths are proportional to time, and allowing the times-to-most-recent-common-ancestor (TMRCAs) of nodes to be estimated directly. Here we describe the sequencing of 3.7 Mb of MSY in each of 448 human males at a mean coverage of 51×, yielding 13,261 high-confidence SNPs, 65.9% of which are previously unreported. The resulting phylogeny covers the majority of the known clades, provides date estimates of nodes, and constitutes a robust evolutionary framework for analyzing the history of other classes of mutation. Different clades within the tree show subtle but significant differences in branch lengths to the root. We also apply a set of 23 Y-STRs to the same samples, allowing SNP- and STR-based diversity and TMRCA estimates to be systematically compared. Ongoing purifying selection is suggested by our analysis of the phylogenetic distribution of nonsynonymous variants in 15 MSY single-copy genes.