"based on the current state of research, the presence of haplogroups N*, H, U5b, and U4 (albeit at low frequency) and the absence of U2 and U5a, could be interpreted as the genetic Mesolithic substratum of Southwestern Europe. In contrast, East European hunter-gatherers show a different haplogroup composition, which is based on higher frequencies of U2, U4, and U5a than in Central and South Europe, very low frequencies of H, and the absence of U5b and N*. "Nice to see this in print.
And for all the Y-chromosome R fans out there. "Interestingly, the aforementioned Mal'ta boy from Siberia carries a basal R haplogroup and likely predates the split into subgroups R1a, R1b and R2 (frequent in India). Since R is a sister-clade of Q, which is common in Native Americans, this argues for a common origin of RQ in Siberia"
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