International Journal of Nautical Archaeology doi:10.1111/j.1095-9270.2008.00182.x
The Earliest Naval Ram
Analyses of the Kuyunjik (Kouyunjik) relief and other data suggest Phoenicia probably did not build ships with rams before the Battle of Salamis. A review of Greek literature, iconography, and archaeology suggests the naval ram may have been a Greek invention, appearing at the earliest in the 6th century BC and possibly as late as the 5th century. Its evolution may have led to a shift from laced to pegged mortise-and-tenon joinery in Greek shipbuilding as well as the development of the wineglass-shaped hull and heavier framing. It may also have influenced the development of large-scale bronze-casting in Greece.