article had determined that Napoleon I had belonged to Y-haplogroup E-M34*, and a new one designates his haplogroup as "M123+, M34+, and L791 and L792+," and determines a multi-STR haplotype for his lineage based on two patrilineal relatives.
Such a well-resolved haplotype may now make it possible to both (i) find descendants and relatives of Napoleon that may be unaware of this connection, and (ii) to more precisely determine the ultimate origins of the house of Buonaparte.
International Journal of Sciences 2(9)
Reconstruction of the Lineage Y Chromosome Haplotype of Napoléon the First
Gerard Lucotte, Jacques Macé, Peter Hrechdakian
As part of the Napoléon I Genome (NIG) project we have reconstructed, based on more than one hundred Y-STRs (Y-short tandem repeats), the complete Y-haplotype of the non-recombinant part of the Y-chromosome (NRY) of French Emperor Napoléon I (1769-1821). We already knew the allelic values at Y-markers of the Y-chromosome of Napoléon I, but only for the palindromic STR YCAIIa and b and for the non-palindromic Y-STR DYS19. The present reconstruction aims to compare the allelic values at Y-STRs of the DNA of Charles Napoléon (C.N.), the living 4th generation descendant of Jérôme Bonaparte (Napoléon I’s youngest brother), with those of Alexandre Colonna Walewski (A.C.W.), the living 4th generation descendant of Count Alexandre Walewski (the son born of the union between Napoléon I and Countess Maria Walewska). We have previously established that Napoléon I, C.N. and A.C.W. are of the same Y-haplogroup E1b1b1b2a1. The allelic values for C.N. and A.C.W. are the same for ninety-three other non-palindromic markers (belonging to ninety different STRs) and for thirty-eight other palindromic markers (belonging to fifteen different STRs); these values then constitute those deduced in the reconstruction of the allelic values of the STR markers of the Napoléon I’s Y-haplotype. Four non-palindromic STRs and two palindromic STRs have different allelic values in C.N. and A.C.W.; we have deduced the allelic value of Napoléon I for one (DYS454), and the probable allelic values for two (Y-GATA-C4 and DYS712) of these non-palindromic variable STRs. To sum up, we have established, by reconstruction of the lineage, the allelic values of the markers of Napoléon I’s Y-haplotype for a total of one-hundred and thirty-three different Y-STR markers.