The mixed (east-west) affiliation of Mongolian cattle parallels the mixed affiliation of Mongolians themselves. The Caucasoids do not appear to have penetrated east of Lake Baikal, and some Caucasoid-influenced populations that live to the east of that frontier are thought to have originated there. Thus, the evidence from cattle complements that from physical anthropology and human population genetics to fix the border between the Western and Eastern Eurasian spheres of influence.
Anim Sci J. 2010 Jun 1;81(3):281-9.
Genetic diversity and structure in Bos taurus and Bos indicus populations analyzed by SNP markers.
Lin BZ, Sasazaki S, Mannen H.
The purpose of this study was to assess genetic diversity, phylogenetic relationship and population structure among nine Eurasian cattle populations using 58 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. The calculated distribution of minor allele frequencies and heterozygosities suggested that the genetic diversity of Bos indicus populations was lower than that of Bos taurus populations. Phylogenetic analyses revealed the main divergence between the Bos taurus and Bos indicus populations, and subsequently between Asian and European populations. By principal components analysis, the Bos taurus and Bos indicus populations were clearly distinguished with PC1 (61.1%); however, six Bos taurus populations clustered loosely and the partial separation between European and Asian groups was observed by PC2 (12.5%). The structure analysis was performed using the STRUCTURE program. Distinct separation between Bos taurus and Bos indicus was shown at K = 2, and that between European and Asian populations at K = 3. At K = 4, 5 and 6, Mongolian population showed an admixture pattern with different ancestry of Asian and European cattle. At K = 7, all Bos taurus populations showed each cluster with little proportion of admixture. In conclusion, 58 SNP markers in this study could sufficiently estimate the genetic diversity, relationship and structure for nine Eurasian cattle populations, especially by analyses of principal components and STRUCTURE.