Three male individuals, a 40-60 year-old male and two young boys (4-5 and 8-9 years old) from grave 99 belonged to Y-haplogroup R1a. The boys were related to their parent:
Additionally, the Y chromosome haplogroup R1a of the boys corresponds with the man’s (ind. 3). It is noteworthy that in grave 99 the orientation of the adult individuals follows the established pattern of the CWC, whereas both children clearly deviate from it. It appears that the burial orientation pattern was overruled for each boy to face a parent to express a biological relationship.The results have been added in my compendium of ancient Y-chromosome studies.
The mtDNA results included haplogroups:
K1b (three from grave 99) 16093C, 16224C, 16311C, 16319A
U5b (one from grave 99) 16189C, 16192T, 16270T
I (one from grave 90) 16129A, 16223T, 16391A
H (one from grave 98) 16093C, 16221T
X2 (two from grave 98) 16189C, 16223T, 16278T 73G, 153G, 195C, 225A, 226C, 263G
K1a2 (one from grave 93) 16145A, 16224C, 16311C
The occurrence of X2 and K1b suggests changes in frequency to the present-day:
The detection of mtDNA haplotypes X2 and K1b, both being very rare in modern-day European populations, is unlikely to be based on the occurrence ofFor the X2 sequence:
independent contamination events.
At present, three exact matches were found among individuals from Iran, Syria, and Estonia showing HVS I and HVS II patterns identical with the two Eulau individuals, but differing from each other by further coding region polymorphisms.Regarding the present-day distribution of X2:
Overall, it appears that the populations of the Near East, the Caucasus, and Mediterranean Europe harbor subhaplogroup X2 at higher frequencies than those of northern and northeastern Europe (P less than .05) and that X2 is rare in Eastern European as well as Central Asian, Siberian, and Indian populations and is virtually absent in the Finno-Ugric and Turkic-speaking people of the Volga-Ural region.For the K1b sequences:
Today, haplogroup K has a frequency of around 6% in Europe (6, 39). The identical sequence haplotype of individuals 1, 2, and 4 has previously been observed (4, 5).The haplogroup I is also interesting, since it was found at a high frequency in Vikings and Iron Age Danes but has a lower frequency in modern times.
So far this haplotype has uniquely been reported in two modern Shugnans of Tadzhikistan (5)
So, in general, these results once again point towards a change in the mtDNA gene pool across the millennia, explained by the authors:
However, we are aware of the fact that the modern distribution might not reflect the haplotype distribution during the Late Neolithic. The mitochondrial haplogroup distribution of a population is likely to have changed throughout time by factors like genetic drift or events like migration or genetic palimpsest (40).Study (41) also by Haak et al. was about Linearbandkeramik farmers from Central Europe. Study (42) by Sampietro et al. was about Neolithic Iberians.
As we recently showed, the frequencies of haplogroups could have been significantly different between Neolithic and present populations (41), although a similar study (from a different region in Europe) provides evidence of genetic continuity throughout the millennia (42).
PNAS doi: 10.1073/pnas.0807592105
Ancient DNA, Strontium isotopes, and osteological analyses shed light on social and kinship organization of the Later Stone Age
Wolfgang Haak et al.
In 2005 four outstanding multiple burials were discovered near Eulau, Germany. The 4,600-year-old graves contained groups of adults and children buried facing each other. Skeletal and artifactual evidence and the simultaneous interment of the individuals suggest the supposed families fell victim to a violent event. In a multidisciplinary approach, archaeological, anthropological, geochemical (radiogenic isotopes), and molecular genetic (ancient DNA) methods were applied to these unique burials. Using autosomal, mitochondrial, and Y-chromosomal markers, we identified genetic kinship among the individuals. A direct child-parent relationship was detected in one burial, providing the oldest molecular genetic evidence of a nuclear family. Strontium isotope analyses point to different origins for males and children versus females. By this approach, we gain insight into a Late Stone Age society, which appears to have been exogamous and patrilocal, and in which genetic kinship seems to be a focal point of social organization.