Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 2006 May 9;
Prostate cancer incidence varies among males from different Y-chromosome lineages.
Ewis AA, Lee J, Naroda T, Sano T, Kagawa S, Iwamoto T, Shinka T, Shinohara Y, Ishikawa M, Baba Y, Nakahori Y
The incidence rate of prostate cancer in African-American males is two times higher than Caucasian men and ten times higher than Japanese men. The geographical specificity of Y haplogroups implies that males from different ethnic groups undoubtedly have various Y lineages with different Y-chromosomal characteristics that may affect their susceptibility or resistance to such a male-specific cancer. To confirm this hypothesis we studied the Y-chromosomal haplogroups of 92 Japanese prostate cancer patients comparing them with randomly selected 109 unrelated healthy Japanese male controls who were confirmed to be residents of the same geographical area. Males could be classified using three binary Y-chromosome markers (sex-determining region Y (SRY), YAP, 47z) into four haplogroups DE, O2b(*), O2b1, and untagged group. Our results confirmed that prostate cancer incidence varies among males from different Y-chromosome lineages. Males from DE and the untagged haplogroups are at a significantly higher risk to develop prostate cancer than O2b(*) and O2b1 haplogroups (P=0.01), odds ratio 2.17 and 95% confidence interval (1.16-4.07). Males from haplogroup DE are over-represented in the patient group showing a percentage of 41.3%. The underlying possible causes of susceptibility variations of different Y lineages for such a male-specific cancer tumorigenesis are discussed. These findings explain the lower incidence of prostate cancer in Japanese and other South East Asian males than other populations. To our knowledge, this is the first reliable study examining the association between prostate cancer and Y-chromosomal haplogroups, comparing prostate cancer patients with carefully selected matched controls.