July 22, 2012

Clarifying the phylogeny of Y-chromosome haplogroup C3c

A short and to the point paper that addresses the issue of classification within Y-haplogroup C3c and refines our knowledge about the distribution of both C3c* and C3c1. I wish more researchers would publish such short technical papers that refine the classification of their Y-chromosome samples as more phylogenetic information becomes available.

From the paper:
In our study, the highest frequencies of subhaplogroup C3c1-(M77, M86) were observed in Tungusic-speaking people of North-Eastern Asia, such as Evens and Evenks, as well as in Turkic-speaking Altaian Kazakhs and Mongolic-speaking Kalmyks. These results are in agreement with previous observations based on separate or joint genotyping of M77 and M86 markers.3,9,12,16

C3c* haplotypes were detected in aboriginal populations of North- Eastern Asia—Koryaks (28.2%) and Evens (1.6%) from the Sea of Okhotsk coast (Magadan region) and West Evenks (2.4%) from Central Siberia (Evenki Autonomous District) (Table 1). Earlier, two Evenk individuals from southern part of Yakutia, one Yakut-speaking Evenk and one Yukaghir were found to belong to C3c*.2,3 Therefore, the geographic distribution of subhaplogroup C3c* is limited to the eastern part of Siberia.
The authors apply the evolutionary mutation rate -although they acknowledge that molecular dating is controversial- to obtain ages of 9.9 (C3c), 6.5 (C3c1), and 4.5 (C3c*). While I don't trust the ability of Y-STR-based molecular dating to provide reasonably accurate age estimates, I would not be surprised if C3c1 was somehow implicated in the deeper origins of the Altaic language family, at least in the "narrow-sense" (Mongolian-Tungusic-Turkic).

J Hum Genet. 2012 Jul 19. doi: 10.1038/jhg.2012.93. [Epub ahead of print]

On the Y-chromosome haplogroup C3c classification.

Malyarchuk BA, Derenko M, Denisova G.

Abstract As there are ambiguities in classification of the Y-chromosome haplogroup C3c, relatively frequent in populations of Northern Asia, we analyzed all three haplogroup-defining markers M48, M77 and M86 in C3-M217-individuals from Siberia, Eastern Asia and Eastern Europe. We have found that haplogroup C3c is characterized by the derived state at M48, whereas mutations at both M77 and M86 define subhaplogroup C3c1. The branch defined by M48 alone would belong to subhaplogroup C3c*, characteristic for some populations of Central and Eastern Siberia, such as Koryaks, Evens, Evenks and Yukaghirs. Subhaplogroup C3c* individuals could be considered as remnants of the Neolithic population of Siberia, based on the age of C3c*-short tandem repeat variation amounting to 4.5±2.4 thousand years.


1 comment:

terryt said...

All we need now is for someone to look at the whole phylogeny of C.