This is an update of a previous post, but with a much larger number of 416 sampled individuals from 26 populations.
The sources of the data are:
- FIN and GBR from the 1000 Genomes Project
- Populations with _D ending from the Dodecad Project
- Populations with _H ending from the HGDP
- Populations with _B ending from Behar et al. (2010)
Some details on the cluster:
- #1-3 are dominated by all 100 Finns plus 2 Swedes
- #4 is clearly Balto-Slavic
- #5 is clearly Russian
- #6 is Norwegian-Swedish
- #8 is British Isles
- #9 is also British Isles but also encompasses all 3 Danes and a Dutch
- #10 is French dominated
- #11 is Central European (German-Hungarian)
- #13-14 are British-Orcadian
- A single Estonian groups with Balto-Slavs
- A single Austrian groups with a Hungarian, French, and British
It is also interesting that the hitherto distinctive Finnish and British Isles populations have split into several clusters. This is the power of numbers, and I anticipate this to occur for other population groups with large sample sizes.
On the flip side, the inclusion of a wide array of Balto-Slavic populations has tended to make them all fall into a single cluster. Belonging to a single cluster does not mean that there is no population differentiation, but rather that this does not take the form of separate "blobs" of individuals that an algorithm working on unlabeled individuals can uncover.
This also brings an explanation of the mega-British Isles/American White cluster discovered in the most recent analysis for Project participants: the inclusion of multiple admixed individuals has probably served to fill-in-the-gaps within the general population of that origin, whereas the current analysis which included only individuals of a single origin as well as what is presumably a good geographical sampling of the GBR population has allowed population structure to be better visible.
UPDATE (Apr 4): It has come to my attention that the single "Hungarian" and the single "Austrian" joined the project under false pretenses and are the relatives of other Project members. In retrospect it is not surprising that they failed to join the German and Hungarian clusters respectively.