November 21, 2008

Y chromosomes from Algeria

The total results were:

8 E3a-M2 (or 8.6% Sub-Saharan contribution)
6 E3b1-M78
40 E3b2-M81
5 J2f-M67
1 R1-M173
11 R1b3-M269
1 Q-M242

The presence of R1-M173 seems interesting, with the haplotype: 16 14 24 30 16 15 13,16 13 10 12 23 14 12 14 12 18, over (DYS456 DYS389I DYS390 DYS389II DYS458 DYS19 DYS385 DYS393 DYS391 DYS439 DYS635 DYS392 YGATAH4 DYS437 DYS438 DYS448). Does this look like an R1b (but not R-M269)? Could it be related to the unexpected R1* found in Cameroon?

Int J Legal Med. 2008 May;122(3):251-5. Epub 2007 Oct 2.

Analysis of Y-chromosomal SNP haplogroups and STR haplotypes in an Algerian population sample.

Robino C, Crobu F, Di Gaetano C, Bekada A, Benhamamouch S, Cerutti N, Piazza A, Inturri S, Torre C.

The distribution of Y-chromosomal single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) haplogroups and short tandem repeat (STR) haplotypes was determined in a sample of 102 unrelated men of Arab origin from northwestern Algeria (Oran area). A total of nine different haplogroups were identified by a panel of 22 binary markers. The most common haplogroups observed in the Algerian population were E3b2 (45.1%) and J1 (22.5%). Y-STR typing by a 17-loci multiplex system allowed 93 haplotypes to be defined (88 were unique). Striking differences in the allele distribution and gene diversity of Y-STR markers between haplogroups could be found. In particular, intermediate alleles at locus DYS458 specifically characterized the haplotypes of individuals carrying haplogroup J1. All the intermediate alleles shared a common repeat sequence structure, supporting the hypothesis that the variant originated from a single mutational event.



Polak said...

Dienekes you need to get onto this...

Btw, check out the higher AFrican and Asian adix in Germans than in Poles. :p

Polak said...

Quite ironic I thought, in the context of our arguments...

Dienekes said...

Quite ironic I thought, in the context of our arguments...

What argument are you referring to?

Polak said...

Nevermind...just do a blog about this study. It's a good one.

Only problem is the lack of key samples from southern Europe (Italy, Greece, etc).

And obviously also the lack of a regional breakdown of the larger countries.

Dienekes said...

After a cursory glance at the paper, there do not appear to be any admixture estimates, so I don't know where you are getting this, unless there are additional supplementary data.

Polak said...

Ok, not admix, I meant affinity. Exactly like in the North European study.

However, we can guess that some of the samples have Asian or African admix based on their posiions. But yeah, its not something that was actually measured from that angle here.

Antigonos said...

I hoped that these samples from the Oran area would have througn some light in one of the biggest queries that i have in my anthropological research.
That is what the hell was the Y-Chromosome haplogroup of all these Afalou and other Cro-magnons in Northern Africa?
So far we know that Arabs brought the J1, Berbers (offspring of the Capsians) brought E, etc. but it is not clear to me the Upper Paleolithic people there what haplogroup did they have!
It is rather impossible to me that all males have been slayed or died out and that the Berber/Arab element totally reined in the area.
The Ibero-Maurusian cultutes were enormous in population numbers and anatomically the Berbers show traces of these Afalou and Tarofelt types!
Then why the hell don't we have a sign of that element in the Y-DNA?
I don't know if R1 or any other Hg is appropriate in order to match our expectations either in numbers or in affinity!
Any ideas people?

Crimson Guard said...
This comment has been removed by the author.
Crimson Guard said...

So Polak, you now believe Africans are related to Germans? LOL

Anyway, wasnt the whole concept of that phenotype term 'Berberid' to have emphasized that the Berbers were all 'Cromagnon' and early Proto-Atlantic(Atlantean,lol) Race which came before the intrusion of Arabs or perhaps "Phoenicians"?!

If the new date on R1B is around 11-15,000 years old or something like this, than it rules it out as being the source of 'Cromagnon'. Besides, it too came from the Eastern Mediterranean or the Orient before hitting Iberia and then from there, spreading to the North-West ect.

I think the E3b(along with some of the other markers) just reinforces that the Berbers and Egyptians are/were the same people.

Maju said...

Could it be related to the unexpected R1* found in Cameroon?

IMO possibly yes. I suspect that R1b was introduced in North Africa with the Oranian/Iberomaurusian culture (Crô Magnon type) from Southern Iberia, together with mtDNA U6 (which is most diverse in Iberia precisely, tough extremely rare elsewhere in Europe - so I think of it as a localized Aurignacian/Gravettian founder effect) and maybe other mtDNA clades such as H and V. These eventually migrated to NE Africa (Sudan/Upper Egypt specially) and from there expanded into the Lake Chad region, as well as back-migrating to North Africa with Capsian (at least that seems apparent for some downstream U6 subclade).

The evidence is not conclusive but to me it seems the most likely pattern, based both in archaeology and genetics.

Btw, some of North African J may well pre-date Arabs (Neolithic, Phoenicians, Jews).

Yamla said...

"Berbers (offspring of the Capsians) brought E, etc. but it is not clear to me the Upper Paleolithic people there what haplogroup did they have!"

Caspian what?!

90% of Africa is E, if thats the case those are your Caspian cousins that I am sure almost certain you hate to identifying with.

Berbers are genetically closer to Libyans, Ethiopians & Somalians than to any Caspain people!

Maju said...

Capsian has nothing to do with "Caspian" (sic), Yamla. Capsian derives from the Latin name for Gafsa in inner Tunisia (Capsa).

Capsian culture (admitted that "Gafsan" would be maybe a better name but all literaure uses the other) is the dominant late Paleolithic/Epipaleolithic culture of North Africa and appears to have originated ultimately in Upper Egypt and Nubia. It replaced the Oranian (aka Iberomaurusian) prior to Neolithic (that is largely a Capsian Neolithic) and had a more interior distribution. It's very possible that Afroasiatic languages like Berber, Egyptian and Semitic expanded since that moment and process.

Berbers are genetically closer to Libyans, Ethiopians & Somalians than to any Caspain people!

Sure, at least in what regards to the Y-DNA side (male lineages) - or the majority of them. MtDNA (female lineages) are less clear cut instead: dominant clades are U6 (most diverse in Iberia, then in Morocco and Canary islands), H and V (here revealed as a subgroup of Iberian clades again), as well as others of West Asian or Black African origin. A-DNA (overall genetics) appears to place North Africans much closer to West Eurasians than to anybody else anyhow.

My impression is, based not only on genetics but also on archaeology, that Oranian is a derivate of southern Iberian Gravetto-Solutrean, whose influence may have arrived as far as upper Egypt and Sudan. In Capsian (Gafsan) times there was a countertide from that same area of the Nile that brought African-specific lineages, specially Y-DNA E, as well as a sublcade of U6, U6a, wich does appear to be more diverse in Sudan and Egypt.

sidoroffs said...

How can Algerian M269 STRs be categorised?

Are they close to European ones and to which microregion?