From the paper:
However comparing the average STR variances of the R1b1b2c (0.243), R1b1b2d (0.207) and I2a2 (0.278) lineages considered in this study and given the replicated estimates pointing to a Mesolithic time frame for the origin, diversification and diffusion of the I2a2 clade (Rootsi et al. 2004), the temporal interpretation here provided for R1b1b2c seems reliable.Reliable indeed. Even with the wrong mutation rate these lineages can't be pushed to the Paleolithic. Better estimates for them are: R1b1b2c: ~1,350BC; R1b1b2d: ~850BC; I2a2: ~1,800BC.
From the paper:
However, the time to the most-recent common ancestor (TMRCA) of the Pyrenean R1b1b2d lineages was here estimated at 7383 ± 1477 years ago, which is consistent with an early dispersion of R1b1b2d all over the Pyrenees and subsequent dissemination outside the mountain range from the Neolithic era onwards. The much younger age estimated by Hurles et al. (1999) for the SRY2627 mutation can, nevertheless, be explained by the mutation rate used (2.1×10−3, for microsatellites), which does not take into account evolutionary considerations (see Zhivotovsky et al. 2006).Hurles was right; the authors should follow their own advice and see Zhivotovsky et al. 2006. They will realize that their 0.00069/locus/generation is derived for a demographic scenario in which a lineage originating 7383 years ago has only ~150 living descendants, an underestimation of several orders of magnitude.
From the paper:
The Y lineages representative of what might have been a pre-Neolithic male genetic composition in Iberia, were those bearing the Palaeolithic mutations M269, including its Mesolithic derived branches R1b1b2c-M153 and R1b1b2d-SRY2627, plus those falling in the I clade defined by the Mesolithic M170.It's as if time has frozen and scientists are doomed to forever repeat what other scientists have said before them.
Annals of Human Genetics doi: 10.1111/j.1469-1809.2008.00478.x
In search of the Pre- and Post-Neolithic Genetic Substrates in Iberia: Evidence from Y-Chromosome in Pyrenean Populations
A. M. López-Parra et al.
The male-mediated genetic legacy of the Pyrenean population was assessed through the analysis of 12 Y-STR and 27 Y-SNP loci in a sample of 169 males from 5 main geographical areas in the Spanish Pyrenees: Cinco Villas (Western Pyrenees), Jacetania and Valle de Arán (Central Pyrenees) and Alto Urgel and Cerdaña (Eastern Pyrenees). In the Iberian context, the Pyrenean samples present some specificities, being characterizeded by a high proportion of chromosomes R1b1b2-M269 (including the usually uncommon R1b1b2d-SRY2627 and R1b1b2c-M153 types) or I2a2-M26 and low proportions of other haplogroups. Our results indicate that an old pre-Neolithic substrate is preponderant in populations of the whole Pyrenean fringe. However, AMOVA revealed a high level of substructure within Pyrenean populations, partially explained by drift effects as well as by the signature of an ancient genetic differentiation between Western and Eastern Pyrenees.