January 16, 2009

Y chromosomes and mtDNA of Koreans

Table 2 has a very useful listing of mtDNA haplogroup frequencies in several East Asian populations.

Table 5 has admixture estimates of NE and SE Asians in Korean populations; notice the gender asymmetry, with males of more southern origin than females.

Table S3 (Excel) has Y-chromosome haplogroup frequencies.

From the paper:
What could be the origin of the male-biased southern contribution to Korean gene pool illustrated, for example, by haplogroups O-M122 (42.2%) and O-SRY465 (20.1%) [29]. Recent molecular genetic analyses and the geographical distribution of haplogroup O-M122 lineages, found widely throughout East Asia at high frequencies (especially in southern populations and China), have suggested a link between these Y-chromosome expansions and the spread of rice agriculture in East Asia [62]–[64]. In general, Y-chromosomes might be spread via a process of demic diffusion during the early agricultural expansion period [65], [66]. If this interpretation were substantiated, the spatial pattern of Y-haplogroup O would imply a genetic contribution to Korea through the spread of male-mediated agriculture.


PLoS ONE 10.1371/journal.pone.0004210

The Peopling of Korea Revealed by Analyses of Mitochondrial DNA and Y-Chromosomal Markers

Han-Jun Jin, Chris Tyler-Smith, Wook Kim

Abstract

Background

The Koreans are generally considered a northeast Asian group because of their geographical location. However, recent findings from Y chromosome studies showed that the Korean population contains lineages from both southern and northern parts of East Asia. To understand the genetic history and relationships of Korea more fully, additional data and analyses are necessary.

Methodology and Results

We analyzed mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence variation in the hypervariable segments I and II (HVS-I and HVS-II) and haplogroup-specific mutations in coding regions in 445 individuals from seven east Asian populations (Korean, Korean-Chinese, Mongolian, Manchurian, Han (Beijing), Vietnamese and Thais). In addition, published mtDNA haplogroup data (N = 3307), mtDNA HVS-I sequences (N = 2313), Y chromosome haplogroup data (N = 1697) and Y chromosome STR data (N = 2713) were analyzed to elucidate the genetic structure of East Asian populations. All the mtDNA profiles studied here were classified into subsets of haplogroups common in East Asia, with just two exceptions. In general, the Korean mtDNA profiles revealed similarities to other northeastern Asian populations through analysis of individual haplogroup distributions, genetic distances between populations or an analysis of molecular variance, although a minor southern contribution was also suggested. Reanalysis of Y-chromosomal data confirmed both the overall similarity to other northeastern populations, and also a larger paternal contribution from southeastern populations.

Conclusion

The present work provides evidence that peopling of Korea can be seen as a complex process, interpreted as an early northern Asian settlement with at least one subsequent male-biased southern-to-northern migration, possibly associated with the spread of rice agriculture.

Link

37 comments:

  1. "an early northern Asian settlement with at least one subsequent male-biased southern-to-northern migration".

    An "early northern Asian settlement"? What does this do for the theory that humans moved into East Asia from the south, having moved through India?

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  2. Man you keep on fighting Southern migration theory with out single proof.

    And there will be million proofs for southern migration theory.
    Not sure what your argument or problem is.
    From Australia Melanesia You name a group that is in India and some in Vietanam and Indonesia.

    With practically None in east Asia. Make some point which is understandable.
    The highly funded Chinese scientists are spending years and years in India, Indonesia, Thailand, Vietnam and publishing papers and papers on genetics. So far even they did not argue like you. Good Luck to you..

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  3. My favorite girl friend (when I was stationed)in Korea came from the upper east coast area (Hamhung), as a child refugee. I wonder what her mt-haplogroup was.

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  4. Here are all the Korean Y-DNA data I have collected; there may be more floating around somewhere in academic cyberspace, so if you come across any, please do not hesitate to post them:

    Wells et al. (2001):
    Koreans
    3/45 = 6.7% D-M174
    7/45 = 15.6% C-M130(xC3c-M48)
    1/45 = 2.2% F-M89(xI-M170, J2-M172, H1-M52, K-M9)
    1/45 = 2.2% K-M9(xL-M20, N1c-M46, O-M175, P-M45)
    14/45 = 31.1% O-M175(xO1a-M119, O2a-M95, O3-M122)
    16/45 = 35.6% O3-M122
    2/45 = 4.4% O1a-M119
    1/45 = 2.2% Q1a1-M120

    Xue et al. (2006):
    Korean (China)
    2/25 = 8.0% Y*(xA, C, DE, J, K)
    3/25 = 12.0% C3-M217(xC3c-M48)
    1/25 = 4.0% K-M9(xNO-M214, P-92R7)
    1/25 = 4.0% N1*-LLY22g(xN1a-M128, N1b-P43, N1c-Tat)
    1/25 = 4.0% O2*-P31(xO2a-M95, O2b-SRY465)
    5/25 = 20.0% O2b-SRY465(xO2b1-47z)
    2/25 = 8.0% O2b1-47z
    6/25 = 24.0% O3*-M122
    4/25 = 16.0% O3a3c1-M117

    Korean (Korea)
    7/43 = 16.3% C3-M217(xC3c-M48)
    1/43 = 2.3% DE-YAP(xE-SRY4064)
    1/43 = 2.3% J-12f2
    1/43 = 2.3% K-M9(xNO-M214, P-92R7)
    1/43 = 2.3% NO-M214(xN1-LLY22g, O-M175)
    1/43 = 2.3% N1*-LLY22g(xN1a-M128, N1b-P43, N1c-Tat)
    1/43 = 2.3% O2*-P31(xO2a-M95, O2b-SRY465)
    6/43 = 14.0% O2b-SRY465(xO2b1-47z)
    6/43 = 14.0% O2b1-47z
    7/43 = 16.3% O3*-M122
    5/43 = 11.6% O3a3c-M134(xO3a3c1-M117)
    5/43 = 11.6% O3a3c1-M117
    1/43 = 2.3% P-92R7(xR1a-SRY10831.2)

    Hammer et al. (2005):
    7/75 = 9.3% C3-M217(xC3c-M86)
    1/75 = 1.3% D2*-P37.1
    2/75 = 2.7% D2a1-M125
    1/75 = 1.3% N1-LLY22g(xN1a-M128, N1b-P43, N1c1-M178)
    1/75 = 1.3% N1a-M128
    8/75 = 10.7% O3-M122(xM134, LINE1)
    15/75 = 20.0% O3a3c-M134
    7/75 = 9.3% O3+LINE1
    2/75 = 2.7% O1a-M119
    2/75 = 2.7% O2*-P31(xO2a-M95, O2b-SRY465)
    25/75 = 33.3% O2b-SRY465/P49(xO2b1-47z)
    3/75 = 4.0% O2b1-47z
    1/75 = 1.3% R-M207

    Katoh et al. (2004):
    Korean Chinese ("...collected in the northeastern part of
    China")
    10/79 = 12.7% C-M130(xC3c-M48)
    2/79 = 2.5% D
    1/79 = 1.3% J
    1/79 = 1.3% K-M9(xN1c-Tat, O-M175, P-M45)
    2/79 = 2.5% O-M175(xO1a-M119, O2b-SRY465, O3-M122)
    38/79 = 48.1% O2b-SRY465
    23/79 = 29.1% O3-M122
    2/79 = 2.5% P-M45(xR1a-SRY1532)

    Korean ("...collected in Seoul by the
    Catholic University of Korea")
    14/85 = 16.5% C-M130(xC3c-M48)
    3/85 = 3.5% D
    4/85 = 4.7% K-M9(xN1c-Tat, O-M175, P-M45)
    2/85 = 2.4% N1c-Tat
    3/85 = 3.5% O-M175(xO1a-M119, O2b-SRY465, O3-M122)
    2/85 = 2.4% O1a-M119
    28/85 = 32.9% O2b-SRY465
    29/85 = 34.1% O3-M122

    Wook Kim et al. (2007), "Lack of Association between Y-Chromosomal
    Haplogroups and Prostate Cancer in the Korean
    Population":
    Korean, "Normal control" cases
    1/110 = 0.9% Y*(xC-RPS4Y, DE-YAP, K-M9)
    17/110 = 15.5% C-RPS4Y
    2/110 = 1.8% K-M9(xNO-M214)
    6/110 = 5.5% NO-M214(xO-M175)
    3/110 = 2.7% O1a-M119
    2/110 = 1.8% O2*-P31(xO2a-M95, O2b-SRY465)
    19/110 = 17.3% O2b-SRY465(xO2b1-47z)
    10/110 = 9.1% O2b1-47z
    12/110 = 10.9% O3-M122(xLINE1, M7, M134)
    10/110 = 9.1% O3+LINE1
    28/110 = 25.5% O3a3c-M134

    Korean, "Prostate cancer" cases
    1/106 = 0.9% Y*(xC-RPS4Y, DE-YAP, K-M9)
    13/106 = 12.3% C
    3/106 = 2.8% K(xNO)
    3/106 = 2.8% O-M175(xO1a-M119, O2-P31, O3-M122)
    4/106 = 3.8% O1a-M119
    1/106 = 0.9% O2*-P31(xO2a-M95, O2b-SRY465)
    18/106 = 17.0% O2b-SRY465(xO2b1-47z)
    11/106 = 10.4% O2b1-47z
    12/106 = 11.3% O3-M122(xLINE1, M7, M134)
    14/106 = 13.2% O3+LINE1
    26/106 = 24.5% O3a3c-M134

    Han-Jun Jin et al. (2009):
    1/154 = 0.65% Y*(xC, DE, K)
    23/154 = 14.9% C
    3/154 = 1.9% DE
    1/154 = 0.65% K(xNO)
    10/154 = 6.5% NO(xO)
    6/154 = 3.9% O(xO1, O2, O3)
    6/154 = 3.9% O1a
    8/154 = 5.2% O2(xO2a, O2b)
    22/154 = 14.3% O2b(xO2b1)
    9/154 = 5.8% O2b1
    45/154 = 29.2% O3(xLINE1)
    20/154 = 13.0% O3+LINE1

    One interesting fact about the composition of the Korean Y-DNA pool that has often gone unnoticed is that they have great amounts of O3-M122(xO3a3c-M134), in both its LINE1+ and LINE1- forms. O3-M122(xO3a3c-M134) is found in China with about the same frequency as it is found in Korea, but this form of haplogroup O3 is very rare in Japan and Tibet, where practically all the O3-M122 Y-DNA belongs to the O3a3c-M134 subclade. Does anyone have any suggestion as to why nearly all the Japanese and Tibetan O3 individuals should belong to the same subclade?

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  5. Actually, nearly all Japanese and Tibetan haplogroup O3 individuals belong to the subclade O3a3c1-M117, which contains only one third of Korean haplogroup O3 individuals according to the data of Xue et al. 2006 (9/27 = 33.3% O3a3c1-M117/O3-M122 total). I hope future studies will take care to test for M134 and M117 in addition to M122 so that we may better understand the origin and dispersal of these important subclades.

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  6. The O3a3c (O3a5) is the most frequent among Sino-Tibetan speaking people, especially Tibetans and Han Chinese. I forgot the study, but Jiangsu Han samples had the highest frequencies of O3a3c-M134 (amounting to 40%).

    Han (Harbin) have more O3*, than O3a3c-M134.

    It's certain that most of the O3 samples among Japanese (about 20-25%) are all O3a3c-M134 derived, though O3* occurs at low frequencies. This could reflect a migration from southeastern China, such as from Jiangsu province of China.

    Interestingly from the studies that Ebizur mentioned, some of the Korean hg NO samples belong to N1c, a typical haplogroup found in northern Asian populations. Also, the hg C3* among Koreans amount to 15-20%, which is a typical northern Asian haplogroup. O3a3c among Koreans (Koreans in China + Koreans) averages around 19% from Xue et al, lower than Japanese samples. Among Koreans in China (who are from North Korea recently), O3a3c seems to occur at a much lower frequency (16%).

    I'm actually quite interesting in the moderate frequencies of hg NO (xO-M175)among Koreans. Further studies should show whether Koreans could belong to typical northern haplogroup N1b and N1c at higher frequencies than thought before.

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  7. Also forgot to mention most of the C among Japanese belong to C1. Hence this can not be explained by northern migration.

    Also I think autosomal DNA studies (using a high number of SNPs 500K+) are a better indicator of ancestry rather than haplogroups. I also can not understand why genetic distances can be determined by haplogroups alone. mtDNA genome sequences were studied by Horai et al, and it dealt with sequences of the mtDNA chromosome.

    The study: cfs8.blog.daum.net/attach/15/blog/2008/10/20/03/42/48fb7f93142fd&filename=japan2.pdf

    Genetic distances were established and sum of specificity of clusters grouped Taiwan Han, Japanese, Korean, Rykyuan and Ainu were calculated, giving results:

    The sum of specificity shows Japanese mtdna sequences are

    4.8% Japanese
    24.2% Korean
    25.8% Chinese
    8.1% Ainu
    16.1% Okinawan
    21% Unidentified

    The sum of specificity shows Korean mtdna sequences are
    40.6% Korean
    21.9% Chinese
    1.6% Ainu
    17.4% Okinawan
    18.5% Unidentified

    So I would say Japanese mtDNA, based on the actual chromosomes, are more related to Taiwan Han than to Koreans. Of course, if you look at haplogroups, Japanese are closer to northern groups, such as northern Han, Manchu, Korean, Mongolians, but we also need to analyze the sequences of the chromosomes themselves. This is what one would call the mitochondrial genome.

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  8. Look at this genetic distance map from a study that tested 650K SNPs (autosomal DNA)

    http://img356.imageshack.us/img356/2914/41133325sm7.png

    Though the genetic distance map has its similarities with the map provided by the other study using 200K SNPs, there are a few very significant differences to point out:

    - The sample of Northern Han (CHB) in this study is no longer located between the JPT and MONGOL samples. It is now located on the border of the JPT cluster, and quite distant from the MONGOL cluster.

    - The JPT sample seems to be not very isolated in the 650K SNP study. It occupies an intermediate position between the Northern Han (CHB) cluster and the MONGOL cluster, though closer to the Northern Han (CHB) cluster.

    - The Northern Han (CHB) cluster seems to have moved from occupying an intermediate position between MONGOL and JPT samples to being completely adjacent to the JPT cluster (in other words, the Northern Han (CHB) cluster has moved right).

    - The eigenvectors for Northern Han (CHB) can now be differentiated with both eigenvectors, in contrast to just one eigenvector in the other study that used 200K SNPs.

    - The study has included the MIAO sample. The MIAO cluster is located between the Northern Han (CHB) cluster and the Cambodian cluster.

    There are also a few very significant similarities to point out:

    - The JPT "isolated" sample (the individual sample that is in front of the KOR cluster) in the other study using 200K SNPs is also isolated from the other JPT samples in this study using 650K SNPs.

    - The MONGOL samples are divided into 2 clusters; a cluster that clusters within the OROQ, HEZ and XIBO clusters, and another cluster that occupies an intermediate position between the YAK and OROQ, HEZ and XIBO clusters.

    - The YAK and Cambodian samples still seem to be very isolated populations.


    The study has many differences from the previous one on East Asia using 200K SNPs.

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  9. I have pooled all the published data that I have previously posted to arrive at these figures for Korean Y-DNA:

    15/722 = 2.1% D (probably mostly D2 from Japan)
    8/722 = 1.1% Y*(xC, DE, K) (including at least some J and F(xI, J2, H1, K))
    101/722 = 14.0% C (probably all C3-M217(xC3c-M48))
    42/722 = 5.8% K(xO) (including at least N1*(xN1a, N1b, N1c), N1a, N1c, NO(xN1, O), Q1a1, and R)
    245/722 = 33.9% O(xO1a, O3) (mostly consists of O2b(xO2b1))
    19/722 = 2.6% O1a
    292/722 = 40.4% O3

    It is clear that haplogroup O3-M122 (including O3*, O3+LINE1, O3a3c*, and O3a3c1) is the most common Y-DNA haplogroup among modern Koreans, occurring in approximately 40% of all Korean males. The second-most common Y-DNA haplogroup among modern Koreans is O2b-SRY465 (approximately 30%), with most of this belonging to O2b-SRY465(xO2b1-47z). The third-most common Y-DNA haplogroup is C3-M217(xC3c-M48), which occurs in approximately 15% of all Korean males. All other haplogroups occur at very low frequency (approx. 5% or less). I believe that the mitochondrial DNA, autosomal DNA, and phenotypic links that exist between Koreans and northern Asians can be explained by a largely shared matrilineal ancestry in addition to the portion of their patrilineal ancestry that is represented by haplogroup C3-M217.

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  10. South Central Haplo wrote, "Not sure what your argument or problem is".

    My problem is that the theory of just a southern migration is wrong, and I want to be able to say, "I told you so" when it is proved to be wrong, and generally accepted as such.

    Ebizur asked, "Does anyone have any suggestion as to why nearly all the Japanese and Tibetan O3 individuals should belong to the same subclade?"

    The evidence suggests that there was some ancient genetic continuity between Northeast Tibet and Japan. After all Y-hap D (although different clades) is common to both. This ancient connection has been broken by a later expansion of Y- chromosome haplogroups, including O3-M122(xO3a3c-M134).

    Elsewhere Ebizur asked how we might explain the complexity of East Asia haplogroups. I'd suggest that there has always been much more back and forth movement, north and south, between Northeast and Southeast Asia than there has ever been between east and west, through both the southern and northern routes.

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  11. terryt wrote
    My problem is that the theory of just a southern migration is wrong,

    Please give atleast one reason for for your belief.

    ReplyDelete
  12. After seeing a lot of Japanese people, one would be able to see, Japanese phenotype doesn't resemble northern Asians, but rather southern Chinese and some southeast Asians. How can we explain this? Is it because they do not have the C3-M217, because this haplogroup occurs at very low frequencies (a mere 1-2%) among Japanese.

    After seeing a lot of Koreans, they have a predominantly northern Asian phenotype, and the common saying "Why do Koreans look so Mongolian?". Could this be explained by moderately high frequencies of C3-M217 and a northern origin of the Korean mtDNA?

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  13. mongobanjum ("Mongolian spot" in Korean) said,

    "After seeing a lot of Japanese people, one would be able to see, Japanese phenotype doesn't resemble northern Asians, but rather southern Chinese and some southeast Asians. How can we explain this? Is it because they do not have the C3-M217, because this haplogroup occurs at very low frequencies (a mere 1-2%) among Japanese.

    After seeing a lot of Koreans, they have a predominantly northern Asian phenotype, and the common saying "Why do Koreans look so Mongolian?". Could this be explained by moderately high frequencies of C3-M217 and a northern origin of the Korean mtDNA?"

    You definitely won't find me denying the phenotypic resemblance between Koreans and Mongols. I tend to agree that the resemblance is due to their sharing a large part of their matrilineal ancestry in addition to the C3-M217(xC3c-M48) component of their patrilineal ancestry; the spread of the subclade C3c-M48 is obviously due to a recent, secondary expansion that has affected Palaeo-Siberians (Yukaghirs, Nivkhs, etc.) in addition to some Mongolic-, Tungusic-, and Turkic-speaking tribes. Generally, Koreans have between one third and one half as much C3-M217(xC3c-M48) as most Mongolic groups, and Hans have on average about half as much C3-M217(xC3c-M48) as Koreans. C3-M217(xC3c-M48) is practically absent from Japanese; it has been found in between 1% and 2% of published Japanese samples, but some of these must belong to the rare subclade C3a-M93, which has not been reported anywhere outside Japan, though this may reflect a lack of testing rather than an actual absence of this subclade on the continent. Actually, C3-M217 is found more frequently in Central Asia and Southeast Asia than it is found in Japan, but this may be due to recent movement from northeastern Asia into Central Asia and from China into Southeast Asia.

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  14. Is there any study on O2b ratio in Japanese or Han Chinese.

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  15. "Please give atleast one reason for for your belief".

    We're arguing over at the post "Diversity with distance from Africa" I think it' called. It's certainly not worth doubling up.

    "Is there any study on O2b ratio in Japanese or Han Chinese".

    As far as I know there is very little O2b in China. However it is found in the Ryuku Islands.

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  17. South Central Haplo said...
    "Is there any study on O2b ratio in Japanese or Han Chinese."

    What do you mean by "O2b ratio in Japanese or Han Chinese"?

    Anyway, haplogroup O2b has not been found in any sample of Han Chinese for which a marker of haplogroup O2b has been tested. However, Hammer et al. (2005) have found haplogroup O2*-P31(xO2a-M95, O2b-SRY465/P49) in the following samples:

    Korea: 2/75 = 2.7%
    Northern Han: 2/44 = 4.5%
    Manchu: 3/52 = 5.8%
    Manchurian Evenk: 2/41 = 4.9%
    Oroqen: 1/22 = 4.5%
    Taiwan (non-aboriginal): 6/84 = 7.1%
    Tujia: 2/49 = 4.1%
    Yizu: 1/43 = 2.3%
    Yao: 12/60 = 20.0%
    Vietnam: 1/70 = 1.4%
    Mongolia: 2/149 = 1.3%

    Xue et al. (2006) have found haplogroup O2*(xO2a, O2b) in 12/166 = 7.2% of their Han Chinese samples, ranging from 0/30 in Lanzhou, Gansu to 5/35 = 14.3% in Meixian, Guangdong. Meixian (梅县, literally "(Japanese/Chinese/Prunus mume) plum county") is located in southeastern China, and is known as a center of Hakka AKA Kejia (客家, literally "guest houses/families") culture.

    In regard to the Japanese and Okinawans, Hammer et al. (2005) have found haplogroup O2b-SRY465/P49(xO2b1-47z) in 20/255 = 7.8%, and haplogroup O2b1-47z in 57/255 = 22.4%, with the frequencies of O2b(xO2b1) and O2b1 being negatively correlated with each other (haplogroup O2b(xO2b1) was most frequent in Shizuoka (8/61 = 13.1%) and Okinawa (5/45 = 11.1%) and least frequent in Kyushu (2/53 = 3.8%) and Aomori (1/26 = 3.8%), whereas haplogroup O2b1 was most frequent in Kyushu (15/53 = 28.3%) and Aomori (7/26 = 26.9%)).

    Xue et al. (2006) have found haplogroup O2b(xO2b1) in 2/47 = 4.3%, haplogroup O2b1 in 11/47 = 23.4%, and haplogroup O2a-M95(xO2a1-M88) in 2/47 = 4.3% of a sample of Japanese. Pooling the data of Hammer et al. (2005) and Xue et al. (2006) yields a ratio of 22 O2b(xO2b1) to 68 O2b1 in Japan, which is approximately a 1:3 ratio (22/68 = 32.4%).

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  18. By the way, Xue et al. (2006) have found haplogroup O2*-P31(xO2a-M95, O2b-SRY465) in the following samples:

    Mongolic:
    1/39 = 2.6% Daur
    1/45 = 2.2% Inner Mongolian
    1/65 = 1.5% Outer Mongolian

    Northern Tungusic:
    0/26 Ewenki
    2/31 = 6.5% Oroqen

    Southern Tungusic:
    1/45 = 2.2% Hezhe
    0/41 Xibe
    3/35 = 8.6% Manchu

    Korean:
    1/25 = 4.0% Korean (China)
    1/43 = 2.3% Korean (Korea)

    Turkic:
    0/31 Uygur (Urumqi)
    0/39 Uygur (Yili)

    Sinitic:
    1/35 = 2.9% Hui (Chinese-speaking Muslims)
    3/35 = 8.6% Han (Harbin, Heilongjiang)
    3/32 = 9.4% Han (Yili, Xinjiang)
    1/34 = 2.9% Han (Chengdu, Sichuan)
    0/30 Han (Lanzhou, Gansu)
    5/35 = 14.3% Han (Meixian, Guangdong)

    Tibeto-Burman:
    0/34 Hani
    1/33 = 3.0% Qiang
    0/35 Tibetans

    Hmong-Mien/Miao-Yao:
    0/34 She
    13/35 = 37.1% Yao (Bama, Guangxi)
    0/35 Yao (Liannan, Guangdong)

    Japonic:
    0/47 Japanese

    Tai-Kadai:
    0/35 Buyi
    1/34 = 2.9% Li

    The Yaos of Bama Yao Autonomous County (巴马瑶族自治县 Bāmǎ Yáozú Zìzhìxiàn) in the northwest of Guangxi have probably experienced a founder effect that has greatly increased the frequency of the O2*-P31(xO2a-M95, O2b-SRY465) lineage among them, because this haplogroup is not commonly found among other members of the Hmong-Mien AKA Miao-Yao language family.

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  19. "My favorite girl friend (when I was stationed)in Korea came from the upper east coast area (Hamhung), as a child refugee. I wonder what her mt-haplogroup was."

    Typical trash in Korea.

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  22. Haplogroup O2b-SRY465 frequency data:

    Northern Tungusic:

    Even (Hammer et al. 2005):
    0/31 = 0.0% O2b

    Okhotsk Evenk (Lell et al. 2002):
    0/16 = 0.0% K-M9(xO1a-M119, N1c-Tat, P-M45)

    Negidal (Lell et al. 2002):
    0/17 = 0.0% K-M9(xO1a-M119, N1c-Tat, P-M45)

    Ewenki (Xue et al. 2006):
    0/26 O2b

    Evenk (Hammer et al. 2005):
    0/95 = 0.0% O2b

    Manchurian Evenk (Hammer et al. 2005):
    1/41 = 2.4% O2b*-P49(xO2b1-47z)

    Oroqen (Xue et al. 2006):
    0/31 O2b

    Oroqen (Hammer et al. 2005):
    0/22 = 0.0% O2b

    Northern Tungusic total: 1/279 = 0.36% O2b*-P49(xO2b1-47z)

    Sinitic:

    Beijing-Han (Han-Jun Jin et al. 2003):
    4/69 = 5.8% O2b*(xO2b1)
    0/69 = 0.0% O2b1
    4/69 = 5.8% O2b total

    S. Chinese/Yunnan (n=39):
    0/39 = 0.0% O2b*(xO2b1)
    0/39 = 0.0% O2b1
    0/39 = 0.0% O2b total

    Han Chinese total: 4/484 = 0.83% O2b*(xO2b1) (includes 44 Northern Han, 40 Southern Han, and 84 non-aboriginal Taiwan (Hammer et al. 2005); 166 non-Muslim Hans from Harbin(n=35), Yili(n=32), Lanzhou(n=30), Chengdu(n=34), and Meixian(n=35) (Xue et al. 2006); 42 Northern Han (Katoh et al. 2004); 69 Beijing-Han, 39 S. Chinese/Yunnan (Han-Jun Jin et al. 2003))

    Mongolic:

    Uriankhai (Katoh et al. 2004):
    3/60 = 5.0% O2b

    Zakhchin (Katoh et al. 2004):
    2/60 = 3.3% O2b

    Daur (Xue et al. 2006):
    1/39 = 2.6% O2b*-SRY465(xO2b1-47z)

    Buryat (Han-Jun Jin et al. 2003):
    1/51 = 2.0% O2b*(xO2b1)
    0/51 = 0.0% O2b1
    1/51 = 2.0% O2b total

    Buryat (Hammer et al. 2005):
    0/81 = 0.0% O2b-SRY465/P49

    Mongolia (Hammer et al. 2005):
    0/149 = 0.0% O2b-SRY465/P49

    Khalkhs (Han-Jun Jin et al. 2003):
    0/49 = 0.0% O2b*(xO2b1)
    0/49 = 0.0% O2b1
    0/49 = 0.0% O2b total

    Khalkh (Katoh et al. 2004):
    0/85 = 0.0% O2b

    Khoton (Katoh et al. 2004):
    0/40 = 0.0% O2b

    Inner Mongolians (Xue et al. 2006):
    0/45 = 0.0% O2b

    Outer Mongolians (Xue et al. 2006):
    0/65 = 0.0% O2b

    Mongolic total: 7/724 = 1.0% O2b (of which all that have been tested for the appropriate marker have ended up being O2b*-SRY465(xO2b1-47z))

    (The Uriankhai and Zakhchin are, in this context, two Oirat Mongolian-speaking tribes who live in western Mongolia. The Daurs are a somewhat isolated and distinctive Mongolic-speaking tribe who mainly inhabit the border between Inner Mongolia and Heilongjiang Province in northeastern China. Buryats are the northernmost Mongolic group, inhabiting the vicinity of Lake Baikal in southern Siberia. Note that haplogroup O2b has never been found in a published sample of Khalkh Mongols, who form the overwhelming majority of the Mongolian population.)

    Tai-Kadai:
    Thais (Han-Jun Jin et al. 2003):
    1/55 = 1.8% O2b*(xO2b1)
    2/55 = 3.6% O2b1
    3/55 = 5.5% O2b total

    Zhuang (Hammer et al. 2005):
    0/20 = 0.0% O2b

    Buyi (Xue et al. 2006):
    0/35 = 0.0% O2b

    Li (Xue et al. 2006):
    0/34 = 0.0% O2b

    Tai-Kadai total (Hammer et al. 2005 + Xue et al. 2006 + Han-Jun Jin et al. 2003):
    1/144 = 0.7% O2b*(xO2b1)
    2/144 = 1.4% O2b1
    3/144 = 2.1% O2b total

    Austronesian:

    Taiwan/Aboriginal (Hammer et al. 2005):
    0/48 = 0.0% O2b

    Malay (Hammer et al. 2005):
    0/32 = 0.0% O2b

    Philippines (Hammer et al. 2005):
    0/48 = 0.0% O2b

    Indonesia, East (Hammer et al. 2005):
    0/55 = 0.0% O2b

    Indonesia, West (Hammer et al. 2005):
    2/25 = 8.0% O2b*-P49(xO2b1-47z)
    2/25 = 8.0% O2b1-47z
    4/25 = 16.0% O2b total

    Melanesia (Hammer et al. 2005):
    0/53 = 0.0% O2b

    Micronesia (Hammer et al. 2005):
    1/17 = 5.9% O2b*-P49(xO2b1-47z)

    Polynesia (Hammer et al. 2005):
    0/60 = 0.0% O2b

    Indonesians (Han-Jun Jin et al. 2003):
    6/36 = 16.7% O2b*(xO2b1)
    1/36 = 2.8% O2b1
    7/36 = 19.4% O2b total

    Philippines (Han-Jun Jin et al. 2003):
    1/77 = 1.3% O2b*(xO2b1)
    0/77 = 0.0% O2b1
    1/77 = 1.3% O2b total

    Austronesian total (Hammer et al. 2005 + Han-Jun Jin et al. 2003):
    10/451 = 2.2% O2b*(xO2b1)
    3/451 = 0.67% O2b1
    13/451 = 2.9% O2b total
    (Among Austronesian-speaking populations, western Indonesians appear to have the highest frequency of haplogroup O2b.)

    Vietnamese:
    Vietnam (Hammer et al. 2005):
    1/70 = 1.4% O2b*-P49(xO2b1-47z)
    2/70 = 2.9% O2b1-47z
    3/70 = 4.3% O2b total

    Vietnamese (Han-Jun Jin et al. 2003):
    5/50 = 10.0% O2b*(xO2b1)
    2/50 = 4.0% O2b1
    7/50 = 14.0% O2b total

    Vietnamese total (Hammer et al. 2005 + Han-Jun Jin et al. 2003):
    6/120 = 5.0% O2b*(xO2b1)
    4/120 = 3.3% O2b1
    10/120 = 8.3% O2b total

    Southern Tungusic:

    Hezhe (Xue et al. 2006):
    2/45 = 4.4% O2b*-SRY465(xO2b1-47z)

    Manchu (Xue et al. 2006): 2/35 = 5.7% O2b*-SRY465(xO2b1-47z)

    Manchu (Hammer et al. 2005): 2/52 = 3.8% O2b*-P49(xO2b1-47z)

    Manchu (Katoh et al. 2004): 34/101 = 33.7% O2b (Note the glaring discrepancy between the figures of Xue et al. 2006 and Hammer et al. 2005 on the one hand vs. Katoh et al. 2004 on the other in regard to the frequency of haplogroup O2b among Manchus.)

    Manchurian (Han-Jun Jin et al. 2003):
    2/44 = 4.5% O2b*(xO2b1)
    5/44 = 11.4% O2b1
    7/44 = 15.9% O2b total

    Xibe (Xue et al. 2006): 1/41 = 2.4% O2b*-SRY465(xO2b1-47z)

    Southern Tungusic total: 48/318 = 15.1% O2b (all O2b*-SRY465(xO2b1-47z) except for Manchus)

    Koreans:

    Korean/China (Xue et al. 2006):
    5/25 = 20.0% O2b-SRY465(xO2b1-47z)
    2/25 = 8.0% O2b1-47z
    7/25 = 28.0% O2b total

    Korean/Korea (Xue et al. 2006):
    6/43 = 14.0% O2b-SRY465(xO2b1-47z)
    6/43 = 14.0% O2b1-47z
    12/43 = 27.9% O2b total

    Korea (Hammer et al. 2005):
    25/75 = 33.3% O2b-SRY465/P49(xO2b1-47z)
    3/75 = 4.0% O2b1-47z
    28/75 = 37.3% O2b total

    Korean Chinese (Katoh et al. 2004):
    38/79 = 48.1% O2b-SRY465

    Korean (Katoh et al. 2004):
    28/85 = 32.9% O2b-SRY465

    Korean/normal controls (Wook Kim et al. 2007):
    19/110 = 17.3% O2b-SRY465(xO2b1-47z)
    10/110 = 9.1% O2b1-47z
    29/110 = 26.4% O2b total

    Korean/prostate cancer (Wook Kim et al. 2007):
    18/106 = 17.0% O2b-SRY465(xO2b1-47z)
    11/106 = 10.4% O2b1-47z
    29/106 = 27.4% O2b total

    Koreans (Han-Jun Jin et al. 2009):
    22/154 = 14.3% O2b(xO2b1)
    9/154 = 5.8% O2b1
    31/154 = 20.1% O2b total
    (Compare with Han-Jun Jin et al. 2003:
    Koreans
    22/160 = 13.8% O2b*(xO2b1)
    9/160 = 5.6% O2b1
    31/160 = 19.4% O2b total
    For some reason, six non-O2b individuals have been removed from Han-Jun Jin's Korean sample between 2003 and 2009.)

    Korean total (Hammer et al. 2005 + Xue et al. 2006 + Katoh et al. 2004 + Wook Kim et al. 2007 + Han-Jun Jin et al. 2009):
    202/677 = 29.8% O2b

    Japanese total (Hammer et al. 2005 + Xue et al. 2006 + Katoh et al. 2004 + Han-Jun Jin et al. 2003):
    160/527 = 30.4% O2b

    The numbers have varied significantly from one study to the next, especially in regard to the frequency of O2b among Manchus [3.8%-33.7%] and Koreans [19.4%-48.1%], but Japan seems to have the highest frequency of this haplogroup overall.
    In descending order, from greatest to least frequency of haplogroup O2b:
    Japan
    Korea
    Southern Tungusic (almost entirely due to the "Manchu" sample of Katoh et al. 2004 and the "Manchurian" sample of Han-Jun Jin et al. 2003)
    Vietnamese (Mon-Khmer)
    Austronesian (almost entirely due to Western Indonesians)
    Tai-Kadai (entirely due to Thais)
    Mongolic (almost entirely due to the "Uriankhai" and "Zakhchin" samples of Katoh et al. 2004, i.e. Oirat-speaking Western Mongolians)
    Sinitic (entirely due to the "Beijing-Han" sample of Han-Jun Jin et al. 2003)
    Northern Tungusic (only one instance: O2b*(xO2b1) appears as a singleton in the "Manchurian Evenk" sample of Hammer et al. 2005)

    In any case, haplogroup O2b seems to have originated or at least primarily increased its frequency in the vicinity of the Sea of Japan, either in the Japanese-Ryukyuan archipelago or the Korean Peninsula, and dispersed from there recently, because its spread is not consistent with an ancient origin on continental East Asia (e.g., why should O2b be found in such high frequencies among some samples of Manchus, but very low frequencies among other samples of Manchus as well as the other Southern Tungusic-speaking Hezhe/Nanais and Xibe/Sibes, and be completely absent from all Northern Tungusic tribes outside of Manchuria, if it had originated among the prehistoric proto-Tungusic people? The only logical explanation is that O2b has entered some subgroups of the Southern Tungusic-speaking people very recently from Korea or Japan, and there is historical evidence for an influence from southwestern Japan ("Wa") to southern Korea ("Silla," "Baekje") and thence to Manchuria ("Goguryeo" > "Bohai" > "Manju"); cf. "Hogong," "origin myth of the Kim royal family of Silla," "Manzhou Yuanliu Kao (Investigations into the Source and Streams (=Origin and Development) of Manchu)", etc.). There is really no pre-modern historical evidence to bring to bear on the question of the source of haplogroup O2b in Southeast Asia.

    ReplyDelete
  23. "haplogroup O2b seems to have originated or at least primarily increased its frequency in the vicinity of the Sea of Japan, either in the Japanese-Ryukyuan archipelago or the Korean Peninsula, and dispersed from there".

    Not from India? Surely if we can accept that this particular haplogroup spread from a particular region independently of others (at least apparently so) then it is a simple matter to accept that in general haplogroup distribution is always a product of a similar process? Why must we conjure up some mythological centre of mass origin?

    ReplyDelete
  24. ERRATUM:

    In a previous post in this thread, I have written that "haplogroup O2b has not been found in any sample of Han Chinese for which a marker of haplogroup O2b has been tested," but this was before I had found the data from Han-Jun Jin, Kyoung-Don Kwak, Michael F. Hammer, Yutaka Nakahori, Toshikatsu Shinka, Ju-Won Lee, Feng Jin, Xuming Jia, Chris Tyler-Smith and Wook Kim, "Y-chromosomal DNA haplogroups and their implications for the dual origins of the Koreans," Human Genetics (2003), which has reported finding haplogroup O2b*(xO2b1) in 4/69 = 5.8% of a sample labeled as "Beijing-Han." I have not encountered haplogroup O2b in any other published sample of Han Chinese, so it seems quite likely that these four individuals in Beijing are descended patrilineally from a recent Manchu, Korean, or Japanese ancestor (judging from history, they are probably descended from Manchus, but their ancient origin probably lies closer to Korea or Japan).

    ReplyDelete
  25. terryt said,

    "Not from India? Surely if we can accept that this particular haplogroup spread from a particular region independently of others (at least apparently so) then it is a simple matter to accept that in general haplogroup distribution is always a product of a similar process? Why must we conjure up some mythological centre of mass origin?"

    Well, haplogroup O2a-M95(xO2a1-M88) has been found with greatest frequency (up to 100%) and diversity in some tribal "adivasi" (aboriginal) populations of India, but haplogroup O2b has not been found in any sample of any Indian population as far as I know. Haplogroups O2a-M95 and O2b-SRY465 have both been found in Japan with high diversity values, however, so I would suppose that they probably have originated and spread from some place in Japan or its vicinity. However, haplogroup O2*-P31(xO2a-M95, O2b-SRY465) seems to be mainly a Chinese phenomenon, occurring in Hans from most parts of the mainland and Taiwan, Yaos from Guangxi, etc. Haplogroup O2a-M95(xO2a1-M88) has also been found with high frequency in the aborigines of Hainan Island and the Nicobar Islands, so I am not sure about the spread of the entire O2-P31 clade. It is rather difficult to make any sense of it.

    According to "Paternal genetic affinity between western Austronesians and Daic populations," BMC Evolutionary Biology 2008, Hui Li et al. have found a rather high frequency of haplogroup O-M175(xO1a-M119, O2a-M95, O3-M122) in the Mon-Khmer-speaking Bolyus and a variety of Tai-Kadai- and Austronesian-speaking populations of Southeast Asia, but it is not clear whether these are O*(xO1, O2, O3), O2*(xO2a, O2b), or O2b.

    ReplyDelete
  26. Actually I'd say haplogroup O2b originated near the Korean peninsula and Manchuria border, as Koreans in China (who are historically from northern Korea, i.e present day North Korea), display the highest frequencies of O2b.

    It's consistent with the fact Yayoi culture came from Korean immigration to Japonic islands, and that O2b has the highest frequencies in parts of Honshu and Kyushu.

    ReplyDelete
  27. "haplogroup O2a-M95(xO2a1-M88) has been found with greatest frequency (up to 100%) and diversity in some tribal "adivasi" (aboriginal) populations of India".

    And many of these tribal groups speak languages related to Eastern languages. Makes sense therefore that O2a came into, rather than out of, India.

    I'm reasonably convinced that there is a connection of some sort between the Sea of Japan and the South China Sea. The Austronesian expansion into the Pacific, the Austric expansion into India and the Na-Dene expansion into North America are three points of a human eruption from around the western Pacific. The present post and comments tend to support the idea. Thanls for all your efforts.

    ReplyDelete
  28. mongobanjum,

    The problem is that haplogroup O2b is not found in the Tungus (Northern Tungusic speakers) or Chinese populations. The present distribution of haplogroup O2b (mainly Japan, Korea, and possibly Manchus, though the various sources of data on Manchus are contradictory, and some populations in Southeast Asia) does not even support the hypothesis of an origin among the original "Koreans" (高麗, who, according to historical documents, originated from Manchuria), much less any Tungusic-speaking people, because if this clade had originated in prehistoric times in southern Manchuria or northern Korea, we should expect to see some spillover into neighboring populations, rather than spillover into Indonesians, Vietnamese, Thais, etc. The fact that haplogroup O2b is not generally found in North Asia or continental East Asia (outside of Koreans and Manchus) is itself enough to throw serious doubt on any hypothesis of an ancient continental Manchurian origin.

    The hypothesis of a Korean origin of anything in Japan is also not supported by historical evidence; all such claims have tacitly ignored the very explicit historical evidence for ancient Japanese influence in Korea. There are undeniably some archaeological connections between ancient Japan and Korea (magatama, kofun, etc.), but the direction of influence is debatable. In any case, your claim that "Koreans in China display the highest frequencies of O2b" is groundless: Xue et al. (2006) have reported 28.0% O2b in a sample of Koreans in China, while Katoh et al. (2004) have reported 48.1% O2b in another sample of Koreans in China. Who is to say which figure is more accurate? The origin of the Korean population in China is very recent (late 19th to 20th century immigrants), so their Y-DNA composition should not be very different from Koreans in general.

    Also, haplogroup O2b is fairly evenly distributed throughout the Japanese Archipelago, but the situation in the Ryukyu Archipelago is a bit confusing; haplogroup O2b seems to be very strongly present in the southern Ryukyus (Miyako and Yaeyama), but only averagely so in the northern Ryukyus (e.g. Okinawa). The variation in the distribution of O2b in Japan is a matter of the inverse relationship between the frequencies of O2b*-P49(xO2b1-47z) and O2b1-47z, which does not have anything to do with the distribution of the entire O2b-P49 clade.

    ReplyDelete
  29. E Bizur :

    just asking for study. thanks for numbers. No other meaning.

    ReplyDelete
  30. Among mtDNA haplogroups, haplogroup A is thought to be a Siberian-Native American marker

    Observation of haplogroup A frequencies

    Wook Kim et al.
    Koreans: 15/185= 8.1%
    Koreans in China: 5/51= 10.0%

    Kong et al.
    Koreans: 7/48= 16.7%

    Tanaka et al.
    Koreans= 0.19+3.54+2.98+0.74+0.37= 7.82% out of 537 individuals = 42/537

    Korean total= 27/284= 8.4%

    Wook Kim et al.
    Japanese: 19/211= 9.0%

    Japanese= 2.13+4.57= 6.70% out of 1312 individuals= 88/1312

    Japanese total= 107/1523= 7.0%

    ReplyDelete
  31. Sorry it's supposed to be 69/821= 8.4% for Korean mtDNA haplogroup A total, not 27/284= 8.4%

    ReplyDelete
  32. Oh and the "Japanese= 2.13+4.57= 6.70% out of 1312 individuals= 88/1312" is supposed to be under Tanaka et al. I just forgot to put it.

    Sorry for triple spamming

    ReplyDelete
  33. mtDNA Haplogroups F and D5a are southeast Asian phenomenon

    Tanaka et al.

    Haplogroup F

    China sample 4 (Guangdong Han)

    4.17 + 2.78 + 2.78 + 1.39 + 6.94 + 1.39 = 19.45% haplogroup F

    Guandong Han total= 14/72 haplogroup F

    Japanese
    0.23 + 0.15 + 0.15 + 1.52 + 3.13 + 0.08 + 0.08 = 5.34% haplogroup F

    Japanese total = 70/1312 haplogroup F

    Korean
    0.37 + 0.74 + 1.12 + 2.05 + 0.19 + 0.19 = 4.66% haplogroup F

    Korean total = 25/537 haplogroup F

    Haplogroup D5a

    China sample 4 (Guandong Han)
    4.17 + 4.17= 8.34% haplogroup D5a

    Guandong Han total= 6/72


    Japanese
    3.73 + 1.07 = 4.8% haplogroup D5a

    Japanese total= 63/1312 haplogroup D5a

    Korean
    2.98 + 0.56 = 3.54% haplogroup D5a

    Korean total= 19/537 haplogroup D5a

    ReplyDelete
  34. I hope people realize most of the data(and the conclusion) provided by ebizur is bogus. For instance he utilizes the data prensented by nonaka et al (anals of human genetics) but fails to notice that it was haplogroup ESTIMATES from STR data.

    Hilarious.

    He is clearly an amateur.

    ReplyDelete
  35. Haplogroup O2b1-47z is a Y2+ Y-chromosome. Below is a summary of a genetic study on the Y2 allele.

    In our previous study, both of Y-associated alleles, Y1 and Y2, were detected in Japanese and Koreans, but only the Y1 allele was detected in each of other populations including Chinese in both Beijin and Guangzhou areas, Caucasians, Africans, and Jewish. In the present study, these observations were extended to other ethnic groups in East Asia. Evenks in central Siberia and Khalkhs in Mongolia had only the Y1 allele. On the other hand, two ethnic groups, Fo-lo and Hakka, in Taiwan had both of the Y1 and the Y2 alleles. Three of the eight Y2-positive men, 2 Fo-lo and a Hakka, shared family name Chen. Both Hakka people and ancesters of Chen families could be traced to the Province of Henan in northern China in early 4th century. They arrive din Fujian/Guangdong area in the south-east Chinavia various routes and then some of them migrated to Taiwan in the 18th century. It is tempting to speculate that the Y2 allele may be originated from an ancestral population in Henan from which, Japanese, Koreans, and some of the Taiwanese diverged.

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  36. I myself is a Han Chinese belonging to O2b (possibly O2b1). There's no word of Korean origin passing down from the family. So I am curious.

    ReplyDelete
  37. O2b is by no means confined to those with Korean ancestry. It is actually spread from Mongolia to Japan, although it may have originated in Korea or nearby:

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_O-M176

    ReplyDelete

Stay on topic. Be polite. Use facts and arguments. Be Brief. Do not post back to back comments in the same thread, unless you absolutely have to. Don't quote excessively. Google before you ask.