December 07, 2008

Y chromosomes of Uttar Pradesh (North India)

The main objection I have to these conclusions is with respect to J2:
Haplogroup J2* was observed 77 times. Its frequency was higher in the Shia (19.5%) and Sunni (15.4%) sample set than in the other three upper caste populations (6.3% in Bhargavas, 12.5% in Chaturvedis, and 11.9% in Brahmins).

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Kivisild et al. (2003) also Figure 3. Migratory routes of paternal lineages of Indian upper caste and Muslim populations. reported the presence of a J2 clade and postulated that the origin of the J2 clade in India was probably Central Asia. Their hypothesis is based on eight populations taken from different parts of India. They observed the J2 clade in ~13% of the sample. The major Middle Eastern lineage present in our study was J2* with an average frequency of 13.8% and its frequency among Shias was the highest (19.5%). We suggest that the J2* lineage of the studied populations might be derived from the Middle East.We suggest that the J2* lineage of the studied populations might be derived from the Middle East. This might have been due to two different episodes of migrations, one concomitant with the development and spread of agriculture ~8000-10 000 years ago (Renfrew 1989; Cavalli-Sforza 2005), and the other more recent migration being the arrival of Muslim rulers 1000 years ago.

I think there are two reasons why J2 may have arrived in Indian caste populations from Central Asia, probably with R1a1:
  • Hindu J2 generally lacks any downstream mutations (e.g., M67) which are frequent in Middle East; this argues against its recent introduction, associated with the Muslims. Moreover, if the Hindu population had undergone recent admixture, then other Middle Eastern haplogroups (J1, E1b1b1, G, R1b) would be found in them at more than zero or trace frequency. So, it seems that J2 is not the result of recent admixture.
  • On the other hand, if J2, and especially J2a had been introduced by Neolithic agriculturalists in India during the Neolithic, then we would not expect that it be correlated with social caste today.
Therefore I am in agreement with Kivisild, that J2 arrived into the Hindu population from Central Asia. In the Muslim population, however, it may be of two sources: religious conversion of Hindu castes, or recent Near Eastern origin.

With respect to R2, I would not place its origin far from India, although it's not clear where exactly it originated.

As I wrote in the Origin of Hindu Brahmins:
The three most populous haplogroups (R1a1, R2, J2a) are the best candidates for lineages of exogenous origin, and have Bronze Age coalescence time, in accordance with the traditional theory. However, indigenous lineages (H1 and L1) and others with fewer numbers did enter into the Brahmin gene pool. The majority (64%) does appear to trace its ancestry to the early Indo-Aryans.
In this study, the combined frequency of these haplogroups (including J2 rather than J2a, since no downstream markers were typed) are in these upper-caste groups: 61.5% in Bhargavas, 68.2% in Chaturvedis, and 60.2% in Brahmins.


Related posts:

Annals of Human Biology doi: 10.1080/03014460802558522

Presence of three different paternal lineages among North Indians: A study of 560 Y chromosomes

Zhongming Zhao et al.

Abstract

Background: The genetic structure, affinities, and diversity of the 1 billion Indians hold important keys to numerous unanswered questions regarding the evolution of human populations and the forces shaping contemporary patterns of genetic variation. Although there have been several recent studies of South Indian caste groups, North Indian caste groups, and South Indian Muslims using Y-chromosomal markers, overall, the Indian population has still not been well studied compared to other geographical populations. In particular, no genetic study has been conducted on Shias and Sunnis from North India.

Aim: This study aims to investigate genetic variation and the gene pool in North Indians.

Subjects and methods: A total of 32 Y-chromosomal markers in 560 North Indian males collected from three higher caste groups (Brahmins, Chaturvedis and Bhargavas) and two Muslims groups (Shia and Sunni) were genotyped.

Results: Three distinct lineages were revealed based upon 13 haplogroups. The first was a Central Asian lineage harbouring haplogroups R1 and R2. The second lineage was of Middle-Eastern origin represented by haplogroups J2*, Shia-specific E1b1b1, and to some extent G* and L*. The third was the indigenous Indian Y-lineage represented by haplogroups H1*, F*, C* and O*. Haplogroup E1b1b1 was observed in Shias only.

Conclusion: The results revealed that a substantial part of today's North Indian paternal gene pool was contributed by Central Asian lineages who are Indo-European speakers, suggesting that extant Indian caste groups are primarily the descendants of Indo-European migrants. The presence of haplogroup E in Shias, first reported in this study, suggests a genetic distinction between the two Indo Muslim sects. The findings of the present study provide insights into prehistoric and early historic patterns of migration into India and the evolution of Indian populations in recent history.

Link

7 comments:

  1. dieneks can you give more details plese on haplogroup e1b1b1b1 who was found in shia muslem in the north to which clade is it belong
    e3b1 or e3b3?
    regards samsun

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  2. Excellent article, I find little surprising here. Much of the Shia Muslim population of Afghanistan, Pakistan and even India are derived from Shia militant groups called the "Qizilbash" which originated in Iran in the late 13th century. Qizilbash is Turkish for "redhead", and they were called this due to their reddish-colored head gear. The Qizilbash helped found the Safavid dynasty of Iran(and they also converted Iran from Sunni to Shia Islam). The Qizilbash were apparently a mixture of Turks and Persians or Kurds.

    The Qizilbash also accompanied the Iranian conqueror Nadir Shah on his India campaign in 1738. Wherever they settled, they became influential as traders or administrators and were overrepresented in the elite. They are sort of like the Shia Muslim equivalent of the Parsees of India, due to their common Iranian origins, although the Qizilbash descendants are more influential in Pakistan overall than in India. Due to their Iranian and Turkish ancestry, they are generally fairer than most Indians and Pakistanis. They have been persecuted on and off in Afghanistan, forcing some of them to pretend to be Sunni Muslim(according to Shia Islam, it is okay to lie or pretend you are Sunni if you fear persecution from Sunnis).

    This may explain some of the Middle Eastern and Central Asian genes found in certain parts of India(let's not forget also all the times the Pashtuns/Afghans invaded India, plus the Pashtuns were the backbone of the Mughal army). Nelofer Pazira, who stared in "Kandahar" and co-directed and stared in "Return to Kandahar" is Qizilbash. From reading her books, one gets the impression that the Qizilbash are like the "Jews of Afghanistan", due to their over-representation among urban professionals, the business elite and their often liberal political views.

    I've known Pakistani Shia Muslims who tell me they are aware of their Turkish roots, although they no longer speak Turkish, and their families stopped speaking Turkish many generations ago.

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  3. Those J2 guys are Phoenicians who spread Islam to India

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  4. On the other hand, if J2, and especially J2a had been introduced by Neolithic agriculturalists in India during the Neolithic, then we would not expect that it be correlated with social caste today.

    I would not be so sure: we really don't know how and how much pre-IE social groupings influenced the formation of IE (post-Vedic) castes. Much of the stock of the new social hierarchy may have been built on pre-existing strata (after all Northern South Asia appears to have been very developed, and therefore socially structured, in the Chalcolithic period).

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  5. Shia (19.5%) and Sunni (15.4%) sample

    It makes perfect sense, because in general these guys were later Turkish-Kurdish-Iranian muslim troops in addition earlier Syrian-Iraqi-Omani groups that established themselves in the Sind region & later invaded North India.

    Some of it is also Neolithic, we know J2 reached Turkestan in Neolithic times so settling North India is Neolithic times is not far fetched.

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  6. Can some please explain the 11% E1b1b1 found in Shia? Like where did it come from? E1b1b1 is a common East and North African lineage. Also, in another article on Dienekes called "Middle Eastern and Sub-Saharan lineages in Indian Muslim populations" on the report it says Shia Muslims have 10.6% of J*(xJ2) which is most probably J1 and while they have only 1.9% E1b1b1a. So, how come no J1 observed in Shia Muslims in this research?? Did they not test for J1 or something? This is the link to the other research article on Dienekes: http://dienekes.blogspot.com.au/2009/10/middle-eastern-and-sub-saharan-lineages.html Can also someone please answer my queries. Thanks.

    ReplyDelete
  7. Can some please explain the 11% E1b1b1 found in Shia? Like where did it come from? E1b1b1 is a common East and North African lineage. Also, in another article on Dienekes called "Middle Eastern and Sub-Saharan lineages in Indian Muslim populations" on the report it says Shia Muslims have 10.6% of J*(xJ2) which is most probably J1 and while they have only 1.9% E1b1b1a. So, how come no J1 observed in Shia Muslims in this research?? Did they not test for J1 or something? This is the link to the other research article on Dienekes: http://dienekes.blogspot.com.au/2009/10/middle-eastern-and-sub-saharan-lineages.html Can also someone please answer my queries. Thanks.

    ReplyDelete

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